日々の読書、愛犬たち、翻訳、手芸など


by ars_maki
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日記

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第二次世界大戦中にビルマ(現ミャンマー)とシンガポールの慰安所で働き、
その様子をつづった朝鮮人男性の日記が、韓国で見つかった。
男性は、1942年に釜山港を出発した「第4次慰安団」に参加し、44年末に
朝鮮へ戻った。慰安所従業員の日記の発見は、日韓で初めて。
旧日本軍による従軍慰安婦問題では、数十年たってからの証言が多いが、
現場にいた第三者による記録は、冷静な議論をする上で貴重な資料と言える。

朝鮮近代経済史が専門で、慰安婦問題にも詳しい安秉直(アンビョンジク)
ソウル大名誉教授が見つけた。約10年前にソウル近郊の博物館が古書店で
日記などの資料を入手。これを安名誉教授が最近精査し分かった。
堀和生京大教授と木村幹神戸大教授が、日本語訳の作成を進めている。

日記は、朝鮮半島南東部・慶尚南道(キョンサンナムド)出身の男性が、
ビルマとシンガポールの慰安所で働いた43、44年に記した。漢字やカタカナ、
ハングルで書かれている。

男性は05年生まれで79年に死去。22年から57年までの日記が残る。
ただ、朝鮮で慰安婦募集に携わった可能性のある42年を含む8年分は、
見つからなかった。

男性は、43年7月10日に「昨年の今日、釜山埠頭(ふとう)で乗船し、
南方行きの第一歩を踏み出した」と記述。44年4月6日には「一昨年に
慰安隊が釜山から出発した時、第4次慰安団の団長として来た津村氏が
(市場で)働いていた」と書いた。

ビルマで捕らえた慰安所経営者を米軍人が尋問し45年11月に作成した
調査報告書には、42年7月10日に慰安婦703人と業者約90人が
釜山港を出港したとの記録がある。釜山出港の日付が一致し、
日記の正確性を裏付ける。

安名誉教授は「米軍の記録が第4次慰安団を指すのは確実だ。
慰安団の存在は、組織的な戦時動員の一環として慰安婦が集められた
ことを示している」と指摘する。ただ、安名誉教授は、韓国で一般的な
「軍や警察による強制連行があった」という意見に対しては、
「朝鮮では募集を業者が行い、軍が強制連行する必要は基本的に
なかったはずだ」との見方を示した。

また、日記には「航空隊所属の慰安所2カ所が兵站(へいたん)管理に
委譲された」(43年7月19日)、「夫婦生活をするために(慰安所を)出た
春代、弘子は、兵站の命令で再び慰安婦として金泉館に戻ることになった
という」(同29日)などと、慰安所や慰安婦と軍の関係が記されている。

一方、「鉄道部隊で映画(上映)があるといって、慰安婦たちが見物に
行ってきた」(43年8月13日)、「慰安婦に頼まれた送金600円を本人の
貯金から引き出して、中央郵便局から送った」(44年10月27日)など、
日常生活の一端がうかがえる内容もあった。

◇従軍慰安婦問題

第二次大戦中に日本が支配した植民地や占領地などから女性が慰安所に
集められ、日本の将兵から性的被害を受けたとされる問題。1990年に韓国の
女性団体が日韓両国に真相解明や謝罪、補償を求めたのをきっかけに
社会問題化した。日本政府は93年8月、慰安所設置や慰安婦移送に
旧日本軍が直接、間接に関与したことを認め、「軍の関与の下に女性の名誉と
尊厳を傷つけた」と謝罪する「河野談話」を発表した。ただ、女性の連行段階での
軍の関わりについては、第1次安倍内閣当時の07年、「政府が発見した資料には、
軍や官憲によるいわゆる強制連行を直接示す記述は見当たらなかった」という
答弁書が閣議決定された。

mainichi.jp/shimen/news/20130807ddm001040089000c.html

The Japan Times on this diary



Korean’s war brothel diaries offer new details

JIJI




Aug 13, 2013
Article history




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SEOUL – The diaries of a Korean man who worked in wartime brothels for Japanese soldiers in Burma and Singapore during World War II have been found in South Korea.

Researchers believe the diaries, the first ever found that were written by someone who worked at a “comfort station,” are authentic and provide actual details of the brothels and the lives of “comfort women.”

They also show that the Imperial Japanese Army was involved in the management of the facilities, which the Japanese government acknowledged in a 1993 statement by then-Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono.

The Korean man worked as a clerk in the brothels. Born in 1905, he died in 1979 before the comfort women became a thorny issue between Japan and South Korea.

A South Korean museum obtained the diaries covering 1922 to 1957, with several years missing, from a secondhand bookstore.

Ahn Byung-jik, a professor emeritus at Seoul National University, examined the portion for 1943 and 1944 jointly with two Japanese researchers, Kyoto University professor Kazuo Hori and Kobe University professor Kan Kimura. Their joint research will be published in South Korea in the near future.

One passage describes how two prostitutes who had quit because of their marriages had been ordered to return by army logistics. He also said he submitted daily reports to the logistics command.

The man noted that the manager of one of the comfort stations was a Korean from Chungju in the central part of the peninsula.

He wrote that he had withdrawn ¥600 from a prostitute’s account and remitted it at a post office on her behalf, indicating that comfort women were paid.

In a glimpse of their daily lives, the man wrote that “comfort women went to see a movie screened by the railroad unit.”

The diaries are “highly credible,” Kimura said, noting there was little possibility of alterations because the man died before the comfort women issue became a source of contention.

His accounts conflict with assertions by some Japanese that comfort women were involved in a purely private business, and by some South Koreans that the women were completely enslaved.

A portion is missing for 1942, when many girls and women were believed to have been recruited. But what he wrote in later years describes events that are believed to have happened in 1942.

“On this day last year, I boarded a ship at Busan port and took the first step of my southbound journey,” the man wrote in the entry for July 10, 1943.

On April 6, 1944, he wrote, “When a comfort team left Busan two years ago, Mr. Tsumura, who came as head of the fourth comfort corps, was working in a fresh food association.”

The diaries “confirmed that the fourth comfort corps had existed,” Ahn said. “It has also become certain that the Japanese government had organized comfort teams and took women to the frontline.”

But Ahn is skeptical about the view that the Japanese military and police took women by force from the Korean Peninsula. “I do not think such a thing was possible,” Ahn said, noting that Korea at the time was “a well-ordered society, although it was a colony.”

The 1993 Kono statement said that the Imperial Japanese Army “was, directly or indirectly, involved in the establishment and management of the comfort stations and the transfer of comfort women.”

In the statement, the Japanese government also extended its “sincere apologies and remorse to all those . . . who suffered immeasurable pain and incurable physical and psychological wounds as comfort women.”

In 1995, Japan set up a fund to support former comfort women, called the Asian Women’s Fund, with financial support from the government.

Japan’s official position is that the comfort women issue has been resolved because South Korea gave up all individual claims under a 1965 pact on the normalization of relations between the two nations. Seoul does not consider the comfort women issue to be covered by the pact.

The Korea Herald-Asia News Network

Korean’s war brothel diaries offer new details

JIJI

Aug 13, 2013
Article history

SEOUL – The diaries of a Korean man who worked in wartime brothels for Japanese soldiers in Burma and Singapore during World War II have been found in South Korea.

Researchers believe the diaries, the first ever found that were written by someone who worked at a “comfort station,” are authentic and provide actual details of the brothels and the lives of “comfort women.”

They also show that the Imperial Japanese Army was involved in the management of the facilities, which the Japanese government acknowledged in a 1993 statement by then-Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono.

The Korean man worked as a clerk in the brothels. Born in 1905, he died in 1979 before the comfort women became a thorny issue between Japan and South Korea.

A South Korean museum obtained the diaries covering 1922 to 1957, with several years missing, from a secondhand bookstore.

Ahn Byung-jik, a professor emeritus at Seoul National University, examined the portion for 1943 and 1944 jointly with two Japanese researchers, Kyoto University professor Kazuo Hori and Kobe University professor Kan Kimura. Their joint research will be published in South Korea in the near future.

One passage describes how two prostitutes who had quit because of their marriages had been ordered to return by army logistics. He also said he submitted daily reports to the logistics command.

The man noted that the manager of one of the comfort stations was a Korean from Chungju in the central part of the peninsula.

He wrote that he had withdrawn ¥600 from a prostitute’s account and remitted it at a post office on her behalf, indicating that comfort women were paid.

In a glimpse of their daily lives, the man wrote that “comfort women went to see a movie screened by the railroad unit.”

The diaries are “highly credible,” Kimura said, noting there was little possibility of alterations because the man died before the comfort women issue became a source of contention.

His accounts conflict with assertions by some Japanese that comfort women were involved in a purely private business, and by some South Koreans that the women were completely enslaved.

A portion is missing for 1942, when many girls and women were believed to have been recruited. But what he wrote in later years describes events that are believed to have happened in 1942.

“On this day last year, I boarded a ship at Busan port and took the first step of my southbound journey,” the man wrote in the entry for July 10, 1943.

On April 6, 1944, he wrote, “When a comfort team left Busan two years ago, Mr. Tsumura, who came as head of the fourth comfort corps, was working in a fresh food association.”

The diaries “confirmed that the fourth comfort corps had existed,” Ahn said. “It has also become certain that the Japanese government had organized comfort teams and took women to the frontline.”

But Ahn is skeptical about the view that the Japanese military and police took women by force from the Korean Peninsula. “I do not think such a thing was possible,” Ahn said, noting that Korea at the time was “a well-ordered society, although it was a colony.”

The 1993 Kono statement said that the Imperial Japanese Army “was, directly or indirectly, involved in the establishment and management of the comfort stations and the transfer of comfort women.”

In the statement, the Japanese government also extended its “sincere apologies and remorse to all those . . . who suffered immeasurable pain and incurable physical and psychological wounds as comfort women.”

In 1995, Japan set up a fund to support former comfort women, called the Asian Women’s Fund, with financial support from the government.

Japan’s official position is that the comfort women issue has been resolved because South Korea gave up all individual claims under a 1965 pact on the normalization of relations between the two nations. Seoul does not consider the comfort women issue to be covered by the pact.
[PR]
by ars_maki | 2014-02-01 10:02